Two Islands One paradise - Beautiful St. Kitts and Nevis
  Our marine Resources

Our marine Resources  

  Name: Dezarnique Hodge

Subject: Social Studies

Topic: Our Environment

Subtopic: Our Marine Resources



                   Table of Contents

 Table of Illustration


 Project Assignment

 What are Marine Resources?

 What are mangrove swamps?

 Where are they found?

 Fauna living in mangroves

 Importance/ Functions of  
 mangroves to coral reefs

 What are Coral Reefs?

 Fauna living in a Reefs

 Marine Resources are being  
 harmed in many ways

 Two ways in which we can  
 protect our marine resources

 Coastal flora

 Coastal fauna

 A Brief Reflection




                  Table of Illustrations

Fig. 1a and 1b

Black and Red mangroves

Fig. 2

White mangroves

Fig. 3a and 3b

Mangroves at Friar’s Bay and Half Moon Bay Ponds

Fig. 4a and 4b

Mangroves at Greatheeds and Frigate Bay Ponds

Fig. 5a

Map showing Marine Habitats around St. Kitts

Fig. 5b

Map showing Ponds and Mangroves in St. Kitts

Fig. 6a and 6b

The Great Blue Heron and a Cattle Egret

Fig. 7a and 7b

The Belted Kingfisher and the Green Heron

Fig. 8a and 8b

The West Indian Whistling Ducks and the Lesser Antillean Bullfinch

Fig. 9

Fauna living in mangroves at Friar’s Bay and Half Moon Bay Ponds

Fig. 10a and 10b

Coral Reefs at Nags Head

Fig. 11

Fauna living in a reef

Fig, 12

Polluting of mangrove swamps

Fig. 13

Illegal sand mining at Key’s Bay

Fig. 14a and 14b

Sewage drains to mangrove swamps at Conaree and polluting of mangroves.

Fig. 15

Beach clean-up at Cockleshell Bay by W.A.H.S students and break waters at Pinney’s Beach.

Fig. 16

Running vines and sea grapes trees at North Frair’s Bay

Fig. 17

Crabs and Brown Pelicans at Pinney’s Beach.

Fig. 18

Brown Pelicans at Cockleshell Bay.

Fig. 19

Baby Hawksbill Turtle caught for physical examination at White House Bay.


                         Project Assignment

1.    What are mangrove swamps?

2.    Where are they found?

3.    Pictures of mangroves in St. Kitts and Nevis.

4.    Fauna living in mangrove.

5.    Pictures of fauna living in mangroves.

6.    Importance/ Function of mangroves to coral reefs.

7.    Pictures of coral reefs.

8.    Pictures of fauna living in a reef.

9.    Pictures showing marine resources being harmed 
Two ways in which we can protect our marine 

11.                    Pictures of coastal flora.

12.                    Pictures of coastal fauna.

13.                    What have I learnt from this project?



What are ‘Marine Resources’?

Marine Resources are living and non-living (things) 
 materials found in the ocean and around the coast.


1. What are mangrove swamps?


  Mangrove is a term that refers to the species of salt 
 tolerant trees dominating the water along tropical and 
 subtropical coasts. The plants of the mangrove swamps 
 vary in height from shrubs to trees 40 metres tall. They 
 thrive in salt water with temperatures above 23˚C.


 There are three types of mangroves in the Caribbean.

(a)            Black mangroves

(b)            Red mangroves

(c)            White mangroves


  2. Where are they found?

  Mangrove swamps are located in tropic and sub-tropic
 regions. They are found at:-

 v   fringe on open coastline

 v   in depressions or basins

 v   a scrub vegetation

 v   coastal wetlands system


  In St. Kitts the mangroves largely coincide with the 
 location of salt ponds and wetlands. Mangroves can be
 located at the Greatheeds Ponds, Half Moon Pond, 

 Frigate Bay Pond and Friar’s Bay Pond. 


  Map showing Marine Habitats around St. Kitts.



Map Showing Ponds and Mangrove in St. Kitts


4. Fauna living in mangroves

  Fauna – is the animals of a particular area.


  Fauna living in mangroves includes:

v   great blue heron

v   cattle egret

v   belted kingfisher

v   green heron

v   West Indian whistling duck

v   Lesser Antillean bullfinch 

5. Pictures of fauna living in mangroves.



  6. Importance/ Functions of mangroves 
 to coral reefs.

  Mangroves and coral reefs are linked together by the 
 water masses that move in and out with the tide, and by 
 the animals that move between these habitats. Mangroves 
 are important nursery grounds for commercial 
 species such as shrimps, snappers and mackerel.

v               Mangroves are very important to the adjacent coral 
 reefs in that they filter silt and nutrients that would 
 otherwise go out to the reef and smother corals and 
 encourage algae growth.

v               Mangroves provide alternative feeding area for fish  
 so that less stress is on the coral reefs.


  What are Coral Reefs?

  Coral Reefs are the rainforest of the oceans. They are
  built up of skeletons of tiny sea creatures called
 These animals live in clean, shallow water

water and only survive in clean tropical seas. Coral Reefs continually grow in size because new, living polyps grow on the remains of old dead polyps.

  There are two kinds of reefs growing off the coastline; Fringing reefs  grows close to our shore, near the land. Barrier reefs grow further away.

                               Cutaway view of a Coral Polyp



7. Pictures of coral reefs.


8. Pictures of fauna living in a reef.

9. Marine Resources are being harmed in many ways.

v   Polluting the sea with garbage (marine debris)

v   Illegal sand mining (fig. 13)

v   Oil spill

v   Sewage dumping into the ocean/mangrove swamps (fig. 12)

v   dynamite kills the fish and reef

v   people sail boats near coral reefs and anchors and break off reefs




10. Two ways in which we can protect our marine resources.

Two ways in which our marine resources can protected are:-


1.    Break waters – these are structures constructed on coasts to protect the coast. They reduce the intensity of water action and inshore waters thereby reducing coastal erosion.

2.    Beach clean-up.



11. The plant life around the coastline is called coastal flora.

Þ  Sea weed                               Þ  Moss

Þ  Sea grapes                            Þ  Vines

Þ  Clamocherry                         Þ  Fern
Þ Reefs


12. The animal life around the coastline is called the coastal fauna

Þ  fishes                                     Þ  seagulls

Þ  lobsters                                  Þ  turtles

Þ  crabs



                           A Brief Reflection

13. What have I learnt from this project?

I have learnt more about mangroves and coral reefs and how they help the flora and fauna in the coastline and sea. It is also interesting to know where they can be located on my island (St. Kitts).



1.    Coral – is a hard substance made of the skeletons of tiny sea creature.

2.    Coral Reefs – are the rainforest of the ocean. They are a source of food and medicine and they protect the coast from wave erosions.

3.    Fauna – the animal’s life of an area or of a period of time.

4.    Flora – the plants life of an area or period of time.

5.    Mangroves – are the species of salt tolerant trees dominating along tropical and subtropical coast.

6.    Marine Resources – these are living and non-living (things) materials found around the coast and in the ocean.

7.    Polyp – these coral animals are called polyps.




1.    Social Studies Class note book (Grade 5)

2.    The New Book of Knowledge (Encyclopaedia) from Scholastic A to Z.

3.    The Internet (Computer).

4.    Department of Physical Panning (for all local pictures).



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